I can see the argument that FAs have limited direct control over their fans, particularly in matches played abroad. But these countries have "previous" for tolerating racism and will never take serious action to sort out the problem until they're made to.
Exactly. We're talking about a culture change and when you consider the amount of effort FIFA have made to include less developed countries in events then the lack of conviction within FIFA and UEFA to address the more pressing matter of racism itself looks even worse. If the FAs are doing nothing about it then you can't expect the fans to change because the clubs won't disturb things until they have to. It's basic business theory, change doesn't come if those at the top don't buy into it and a £25k fine is not buying into fighting racism, it's slapped wrists appeasement.